Thursday, November 28, 2019
Looking At The Different Social Work Theories Social Work Essay Example
Looking At The Different Social Work Theories Social Work Essay Social work theories represent sets of thoughts that assist in explicating the grounds for happening of events or why specific events happened in peculiar ways and are used to foretell likely future actions of present results. It is of import to appreciate that theories, whilst based on concluding and grounds, are non once and for all proved. In societal work pattern they provide alternate models for understanding issues by the linkage of sets of thoughts, and aid people to do sense of specific state of affairss or fortunes. Their application helps societal workers in steering pattern and in accomplishing way in their attempts. This survey takes up the ecological attack for treatment and assesses its utility for societal work pattern. The ecological attack is besides compared with humanitarianism and existential philosophy and its assorted facets are critically analysed with regard to accomplishment of managerialism and answerability in societal work pattern. Kurt Lewin, ( Plas, 1981 ) , states that good theory is basically practical. It provides a manner to look at the universe and ushers action for the accomplishment of vision of the manner things should be. Ecological theory, many experts feel, fits with Lewin s axiom and has the possible to give societal workers, both a practical position for effectual societal intercession, and a larger position for sing and measuring the societal universe ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Whilst Roger Barker, ( 1968 ) , initiated the application of ecological constructs to analysis of human behavior, the application of such ecological positions to societal work pattern did non happen until it was taken up by Carel Germain in the mid 1970s ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The ecological attack has since so go increasingly popular among societal workers and is now normally used as a pattern attack for intercession ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The attack, despite going more normally used, does hold some majo r restrictions, head among which is the deficiency of ( a ) clearly defined processs for battle in appraisal, and ( B ) specific sets of techniques and schemes for intercession ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . We will write a custom essay sample on Looking At The Different Social Work Theories Social Work specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Looking At The Different Social Work Theories Social Work specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Looking At The Different Social Work Theories Social Work specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The acceptance of the ecological attack enables societal work practicians to understand the significance of the adaptative tantrum between the environment and beings ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . An grasp of such a tantrum in bend enables the outgrowth of a pattern theoretical account that basically focuses on the importance of turn uping ways and agencies to first assist persons in accommodating to their environments and 2nd in the preparation of schemes for altering environmental elements that could do jobs for service users ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . It is of import to understand three constructs, viz. ( a ) behavior scenes, ( B ) the ecosystem and ( degree Celsius ) definition of client jobs, in order to understand and appreciate the tantrum between beings and their environment ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . An apprehension of these constructs helps in understanding the significantly unconventional and different attack of the ecological position ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The construct of behaviour scenes provides fresh penetrations in the relationship that exists between single behavior and environmental scene. Barker and Gum ( 1964 ) , found that persons react otherwise to different types of environment. Analysis of behavior scene helps societal workers to gestate the jobs of service users and is considered to be a basic unit of analysis for the application of the ecological attack to societal work pattern. The behavior scene, it must nevertheless be clarified, represents more than the traditional construct of behavior as the response to a stimulation and is perceived to be a complex relationship of people, puting, clip and single behavior. A pudding stone of such behaviour scenes signifiers ecology ( Germain A ; Bloom, 1999, p 16-22 ) . Specific persons map in more than one specific ecology. The ecosystem of persons consists of the assorted inter-relationships and the conglobation of such ecologies ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The ecosystem of a kid, for illustration comprises of the ego, the household, the school and the larger community ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . It is of import to understand that the client, in such a construct of ecosystem is an built-in constituent of the ecological system and can non be juxtaposed with the larger environment ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The ecosystem of an single consists of four distinct degrees, viz. the micro-system, the meso-system, the exo-system, and the macro-system. The micro-system represents the immediate environment, viz. the impact of personality features of an person on other household members ( Jones, 2010, p 67 ) . The meso-system is more complex and refers to the interactive procedures that occur between multiple micro-systems ( Jones, 2010, p 67 ) . The e xo-system and macro-system likewise refer to more generalized degrees and stand for more extended interaction of ecologies ( Jones, 2010, p 67 ) . A The service user in such fortunes becomes the shaping and primary member of the eco system that in bend comprises of assorted overlapping subsistence like the household, the work topographic point and the larger community ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The psychosocial development and accommodation of persons are perceived to be the effect of minutess between persons and their environments. The ecological position suggests the happening of cyclic and bidirectional activities between persons and their environments ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The environment in the first topographic point affects the development and accommodation of persons. The behavior of persons lead to responses inside the environment and the altered environment thenceforth exerts a different force per unit area on the person ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Social workers can see this procedure as consecutive or coincident common influence, for illustration X affects Y, which once more affects X or X and Y come together to organize a integrity that defines the state of affairs ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . This construct and these position points are of import because they lead to the preparation of new ways for conducting of appraisal and transporting out of intercession in societal work pattern ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The acceptance of the ecological position point leads to the shifting of focal point from single personality and behavioral features to relationships between persons, their households, their communities and other ecolog ies that are included in their eco systems ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Most people do run in societal ecologies that are adaptative or congruent and where people are in harmoniousness with the societal norms of their environments ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . The demand for societal work intercession comes approximately when such adaptative tantrums cease to be and take to mal accommodations ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . The ecological position differs significantly from traditional societal work position points on definition of jobs of service users ( Tew, 2005, p 31-36 ) . Most conventional positions concentrate on persons for definition of jobs of service users and perceive such service users to be aberrant, behaviourally troubled or emotionally disturbed ( Tew, 2005, p 31-36 ) . The ecological attack really significantly does non comprehend the symptoms of service user s family footings of single pathologies but looks at such symptoms to be declarative of misfunctioning eco systems ( Tew, 2005, p 31-36 ) . Advocates of the ecological attack are likely to comprehend emotional perturbations to be comprehensive jobs that are happening in the uninterrupted version that is taking topographic point between beings and their environments ( Wilson, 1999, p 4-11 ) . Mal-adoptions are therefore felt to shack non merely in the activity of persons upon their environments but besides of the environments upon p ersons ( Wilson, 1999, p 4-11 ) . Individual jobs and troubles in societal operation are therefore perceived to stem from synergistic, dynamic and mutual sets of forces that work between persons and their eco systems ( Wilson, 1999, p 4-11 ) . The relationship between debatable societal operation and ecology has been studied in assorted relationships between ( a ) societal category and hospitalization for psychiatric causes, ( B ) chance of specific types of mental complaints and spacial community forms and ( degree Celsius ) self-destruction rates and societal administration of communities ( Peters A ; Marshall, 1996, p 17-32 ) . It is apparent that the acceptance of the ecological position requires a extremist displacement of attack by societal workers, who must travel off from persons and seek to understand a unit that is termed as individual-in-ecology ( Peters A ; Marshall, 1996, p 17-32 ) . Such an attack requires the screening of single jobs in footings of mal adaptative systems and even differences in labelling of clients, who for illustration should be termed as upseting clients instead than emotionally disturbed ( Peters A ; Marshall, 1996, p 17-32 ) . Application of Ecological Approach for Intervention The ecological scheme for intercession evidently calls for an ecological appraisal of the jobs of service users ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . Such ecological appraisal basically involves two of import issues, viz. ( a ) the designation of grounds for strife in eco systems and beginnings of strength, which can be utilised to heighten the degree of tantrum between service users and of import people in the lives, and ( B ) specification of the services that will be needed to let service users to come on towards accomplishment of coveted ends ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . Traditional theoretical accounts of societal work, it is easy to understand, are far more simplistic than the ecological appraisal attack ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Such methods are narrower and perceive single service users to be the lone focal point of the assessment process ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . The intercession theoretical account in the ecological attack comprises of specific stairss that assist in interlingual rendition of such appraisal into appropriate schemes for intercession ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Such an intercession attack consists of seven specific phases and can be applied in a figure of pattern countries ( Nash, et Al, 2005, p 32-41 ) . The intercession theoretical account in the ecological attack is similar to other traditional attacks with respect to assemblage of informations but deviates significantly in the ways in which societal work practicians conceptualise and organise the procedures of appraisal and intercession ( Nash, et Al, 2005, p 32-41 ) . The seven of import phases in the intercession procedure comprise of ( a ) come ining the system, ( B ) mapping the ecology, ( degree Celsius ) measuring the ecology, ( vitamin D ) making a vision for alteration, ( vitamin E ) coordinating and communication, ( degree Fahrenheit ) reassessing and ( g ) evaluating ( Nash, et Al, 2005, p 32-41 ) . These stairss are significantly different from traditional methods of appraisal and intercession and plays far greater duties on the shoulders of societal work practicians ( Nash, et Al, 2005, p 32-41 ) . The first measure of the societal work practician concerns come ining the exo-system of the universe of the service user, such a procedure involves appraisal of assorted relationships in the life of the service user and designation of an entry point into the universe of the service user ( Kerson, 2002, p 8-14 ) . Appraisal of relationships in such fortunes involves scrutiny of the assorted sub systems like the immediate household, the workplace and the community that shape the universe of the service user ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . The societal work practician can obtain important information from scrutiny of such sub systems for the preparation of intercession schemes ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . Appraisal of assorted subsystems is thenceforth followed by entry into the universe of the client ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . This is mostly done through an interview affecting the societal worker, the service user and people in his or her immediate household ( Kerson, 2002, p 8-14 ) . The societal worker, after come ining the universe of the service user commences ecological function ( Kerson, 2002, p 8-14 ) . Such mapping involves analysis of assorted sub systems and designation of people and events that are relevant to the challenges facing the service user ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Such mapping involves interaction with representatives of different sub systems like partner, parents or immediate friends and leads to obtaining of really of import information ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The function of ecology is followed by reading and appraisal. Social workers, at this phase of the procedure hunt for of import jobs and beginnings of strength in the eco system of service users ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . The description of relationships and repeating subjects in the lives of service users forms an of import facet of this phase and helps in placing jobs every bit good as beginnings of strength that can assist the service users in accomplishing a better tantrum with the environment ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Appraisal of ecology is followed by turn uping the countries that require to be altered to heighten the societal operation of service users ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Social workers whilst concentrating on the needed alteration demand to see the service users entire eco system and utilize all available strengths in the ecology ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Practitioners should be unfastened to different alteration possibilities and implement proposed programs of action after obtaining the understanding of service users ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Social workers must pass on and organize with people in the eco system during much of the intercession procedure ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . A important portion of the alteration procedure lies in the custodies of of import people in the eco systems of service users and practicians need to offer support and facilitate alteration attempts through place visits and telephone calls ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Reappraisal and rating besides form of import constituents of the ecological intercession procedure ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Social workers should be unfastened on remapping the ecology and working through subsequent phases if the intercession attempts do non look to be accomplishing their stated aims ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The concluding phase of intercession that is the comprehensive rating of the procedure concerns the assemblage of information through informal meetings and the usage of construction questionnaires ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The rating procedure is of import for practicians because it enables them to heighten the quality of their ecological attack based intervention process ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Advantages and Disadvantages of the Ecological Approach It is of import to understand that ecological positions help societal workers significantly in understanding human jobs to basically be results of uninterrupted minutess of different types between environments and people ( Ginsburg, 1990, p 12-21 ) . The conceptualising of human jobs in this manner helps societal workers in understanding that strife between people and their environment can take specifically to adverse physical, emotional and societal effects upon people ( Ginsburg, 1990, p 12-21 ) . Such a focal point is besides a consolidative characteristic of societal work pattern. The acceptance of this attack helps societal workers in taking away their focal point from persons as perverts with emotional and mental troubles and helps in puting them merely as persons who have mal-adaption with their environments ( Henderson, 1994, p 38-45 ) . The probe and assessment procedure under this attack besides allows societal workers to interact with assorted people who are of import to t he service user and construct an intercession program that involves non merely the societal worker and the service user but besides other people who are close to the service user, understand his or her jobs and are able to assist the service user in accomplishing the desired aims ( Henderson, 1994, p 38-45 ) . Whilst the ecological attack helps societal workers significantly in gestating the indispensable concerns of societal work pattern, the attack continues to hold some built-in troubles and jobs ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . It does non for illustration provide clearly laid down sets of processs and procedures for appraisal and intercession, every bit good as schemes and concluding for their usage ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Social workers therefore use the attack for understanding the basic relationships between service users and their environments but have to thereafter devise and explicate their ain appraisal and intercession processs ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . It has besides disturbingly been found that when societal workers intervene in the eco systems of service users by opening up communicating channels with other people in the eco system, such intercessions frequently do non hold lucidity in footings of results and can take to negative effects ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Critics of the ecological attack besides argue that its application leads practicians to comprehend jobs with such wide positions that practicians attempt to be after so comprehensively that existent effectivity of pattern gets jeopardised ( Henderson, 1994, p 38-45 ) . Whilst such disadvantages and unfavorable judgments do hold virtue and must be considered by workers who opt to utilize the ecological attack, its acceptance and application does enable societal workers to obtain much larger positions and greater and more dynamic apprehension of persons and their societal, cultural and physical environments ( Henderson, 1994, p 38-45 ) . The acceptance of such positions consequences in turning away of blaming of victims and in location of appraisal and intercession of the issue in the ecosystem of service users ( Henderson, 1994, p 38-45 ) . Mentions Barker, R. , 1968, Ecological Psychology: Concepts and Methods for Analyzing the Environment of Human Behaviour, Stanford, California: Stanford University. Barker, R. , A ; Gump, P. , 1964, Big School, Small School, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Germain, C. , 1973, An Ecological Position in Casework , Social Casework, 54, 323-330. Germain, C. B. , A ; Bloom, M. , 1999, Human Behavior in the Social Environment: An Ecological View ( 2nd ed. ) , New York: Columbia University Press. Ginsburg, E. H. , 1990, Effective Interventions: Using Learning Theory to School Social Work, New York: Greenwood Press. Henderson, G. , 1994, Social Work Interventions: Helping Peoples of Color, Westport, CT: Bergin A ; Garvey. Jones, P. , 2010, Reacting to the Ecological Crisis: Transformative Nerve pathwaies for Social Work Education, Journal of Social Work Education, 46 ( 1 ) , 67. Kerson, T. S. , 2002, Boundary Spanning: An Ecological Reinterpretation of Social Work Practice in Health and Mental Health Systems, New York: Columbia University Press. Meinert, R. G. , Pardeck, J. T. , A ; Sullivan, W. P. ( Eds. ) , 1994, Issues in Social Work: A Critical Analysis, Westport, CT: Auburn House. Nash, M. , Munford, R. , A ; ODonoghue, K. ( Eds. ) , 2005, Social Work Theories in Action, London: Jessica Kingsley. Norman, E. ( Ed. ) , 2000, Resiliency Enhancement: Puting the Strengths Perspective into Social Work Practice, New York: Columbia University Press. Pardeck, T. J. , 1988, Social Treatment through an Ecological Approach , Clinical Social Work Journal, Vol 16, No 1. Peters, M. , A ; Marshall, J. , 1996, Individualism and Community: Education and Social Policy in the Postmodern Condition, London: Falmer Press. Plas, J. , 1981, The Psychologist in the School Community: A Liaison Role , School Psychology Review, 10, 72-81. Tew, J. ( Ed. ) . , 2005, Social Perspectives in Mental Health: Developing Social Models to Understand and Work with Mental Distress, London: Jessica Kingsley. Wilson, D. J. , 1999, Indigenous South Americans of the Past and Present: An Ecological Position, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.